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Biology, Vol. 10, Pages 1044: Regulation of Milk Protein Synthesis by Free and Peptide-Bound Amino Acids in Dairy Cows

Biology doi: 10.3390/biology10101044

Authors:
Miaomiao Zhou
Lianbin Xu
Feng-Qi Zhao
Hongyun Liu

Milk protein (MP) synthesis in the mammary gland of dairy cows is a complex biological process. As the substrates for protein synthesis, amino acids (AAs) are the most important nutrients for milk synthesis. Free AAs (FAAs) are the main precursors of MP synthesis, and their supplies are supplemented by peptide-bound AAs (PBAAs) in the blood. Utilization of AAs in the mammary gland of dairy cows has attracted the great interest of researchers because of the goal of increasing MP yield. Supplying sufficient and balanced AAs is critical to improve MP concentration and yield in dairy cows. Great progress has been made in understanding limiting AAs and their requirements for MP synthesis in dairy cows. This review focuses on the effects of FAA and PBAA supply on MP synthesis and their underlying mechanisms. Advances in our knowledge in the field can help us to develop more accurate models to predict dietary protein requirements for dairy cows MP synthesis, which will ultimately improve the nitrogen utilization efficiency and lactation performance of dairy cows.

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