Materials, Vol. 16, Pages 3998: Near-Surface-Defect Detection in Countersunk Head Riveted Joints Based on High-Frequency EMAT
Materials doi: 10.3390/ma16113998
Countersunk head riveted joints (CHRJs) are essential for the aerospace and marine industries. Due to the stress concentration, defects may be generated near the lower boundary of the countersunk head parts of CHRJs and require testing. In this paper, the near-surface defect in a CHRJ was detected based on high-frequency electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs). The propagation of ultrasonic waves in the CHRJ with a defect was analyzed based on the theory of reflection and transmission. A finite element simulation was used to study the effect of the near-surface defect on the ultrasonic energy distribution in the CHRJ. The simulation results revealed that the second defect echo can be utilized for defect detection. The positive correlation between the reflection coefficient and the defect depth was obtained from the simulation results. To validate the relation, CHRJ samples with varying defect depths were tested using a 10-MHz EMAT. The experimental signals were denoised using wavelet-threshold denoising to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The experimental results demonstrated a linearly positive correlation between the reflection coefficient and the defect depth. The results further showed that high-frequency EMATs can be employed for the detection of near-surface defects in CHRJs.
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